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Benzisothiazolinone

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Benzisothiazolinone

(Ben-ZISO-thia-ZO-li-none) Synthetic Other names: BIT
What it is: 

Benzisothiazolinone, also called BIT, is an off-white to yellowish liquid antimicrobial substance.[1] 

What it does in our products: 

Benzisothiazolinone is a preservative, but it is also a disinfectant used in the film, fiber, leather, masonry, metalworking, and embalming industries. However, it is also found in liquid hand soap and sunscreen.[2] It dissolves in water and is used in water-based solutions such as pastes, paints and oils.[3] 

Which products include this ingredient?
Natural Carpet & Upholstery Shampoo
Natural Carpet & Upholstery Shampoo
Natural Dish Soap
Natural Dish Soap
Natural Foaming Hand Soap
Natural Foaming Hand Soap
Natural Hand Soap
Natural Hand Soap
Natural Laundry Detergent
Natural Laundry Detergent
Natural Multi-Surface Cleaner
Natural Multi-Surface Cleaner
Natural Stain Remover
Natural Stain Remover
How it's made: 

There are three common methods for making BIT. The first involves reacting 2-halogenothiobenzoyl halide with a primary amine to obtain a N-substituted BIT. The 2-halogenothiobenzoyl halide is typically made by cleaving the disulphide bond of 2,2'-dithio-bis-benzoic acid with halogen and simultaneously or sequentially converting the carboxylic acid groups to acid halides. A second method involves cyclising 2-halogenothiobenzamide in the presence of acid or alkali. The 2-halogenothiobenzamide typically comes from converting 2,2'-dithio-bis- benzoic acid to bisamide and then cleaving the disulphide bond with halogen. The third method is to heat 2,2'-dithio-bis-benzamides in the presence of a sodium hydroxide solution. Another method is to disproportion bisamide in alkali in the presence of oxygen or an oxygen-release agent.[4] 

Why we use it: 

We use benzisothiazolinone in several of our products as a biodegradable preservative that is a better alternative to formaldehyde, methylisothiazolinone, and medium-chain triglycerides. The Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety considers the ingredient safe when used as a preservative up to 0.01% in cosmetics. Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care quality standards.[5,6] In addition, research shows the ingredeitn is not a strong skin irritant in skin cream up to 100ppm.[7]