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Amylase

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Amylase

(a-mah-LASE) Naturally Derived
What it is: 

Amylase is a naturally occurring enzyme that speeds up the breakdown of starches and carbohydrates.[1,2] Enzymes have been used since ancient times (amyl is Greek for “starch”).[3] Outside of personal care and cleaning products, amylase is used in a variety of industries, including brewing, distilling, baking, animal feeds, sewage treatment and digestive aids.[4]

What it does in our products: 

Amylase is a mix of enzymes that make the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides.[5] It breaks starch-based soil down to simpler forms for removal by detergent.[6,7]  It is also a skin conditioner and is found in thousands of products, including sunscreen, laundry detergent and other items.[8,9,10]

Which products include this ingredient?
Natural Laundry Detergent
Natural Laundry Detergent
Natural Stain Remover
Natural Stain Remover
How it's made: 

Amylase can be produced by plant, animal or microbial sources, including barley and rice, as well as Bacillus sppB. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis. The aspergillus and penicillium are other sources. Submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation are the two main methods of production. Submerged fermentation uses liquid substrates, such as molasses and broths, along with microorganisms such as bacteria that require high moisture content for their growth. Solid-state fermentation uses microbes that require less moisture for their growth, including bran, bagasse, and paper pulp.[11] 

Why we use it: 

We use amylase in several of our products as a biodegradable enzyme. The FDA has deemed the ingredient generally recognized as safe (GRAS), and Whole Foods has deemed the ingredient acceptable in its body care quality standards.[12,13,14] Studies show amylase is generally not irritating or sensitizing to the skin or eyes.[13,14,15,16,17] 

Derived from barley
Amylase is derived from barley
Sources: 

[1]American Cleaning Institute[2]Soap and Detergent Association[3] Soap and Detergent Association[4] U.S. National Library of Medicine[5] Environmental Working Group[6] American Cleaning Institute[7] American Cleaning Institute[8] Environmental Working Group[9] American Cleaning Institute[10]European Commission[11] Sudarram, A., Murthy, T. P. K., “Alpha-amylase production and applications: a review.” Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 2014 2 (4), pp 166-175[12]Food and Drug Administration.[13] Whole Foods Market.[14] Whole Foods Market.[15] Griffith, J.F., Weaver, J.E., Whitehouse, H.S., Poole, R.L., Newmann, E.A., and Nixon, G.A. 1969. “Safety evaluation of enzyme detergents: Oral and cutaneous toxicity, irritancy and skin sensitization studies.” Food and Cosmetic Toxicology 7: 581–593.[16] The International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.). 2002. “Guiding Principles for the Safe Handling of Enzymes in Detergent Manufacture.” Brussels: A.I.S.E. www.aise-net.org.[17] Bannan, E.A., Griffith, J.F., Nusair, T.L. 1992. “Skin testing of laundered fabrics in the dermal safety assessment of enzymecontaining detergents.” Journal of Toxicology—Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 11 (4): 327–339. [18] Rodriguez, C., Calvin, G., Lally, C., and LaChapelle, J.M. 1994. “Skin effects associated with wearing fabrics washed with commercial laundry detergents.” Journal of Toxicology—Cutaneous & Ocular Toxicology 13(1): 39–45.[19] Greenough, R.J., Everett, D.J., and Stavnsbjerg, M. 1991. “Safety evaluation of alkaline cellulase.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 29(11): 7815.